Because of the physical skill and personal creativity involved, the limbo is a popular tourist attraction in Barbados, and even a source of income for many Caribbeans. Will he find his way? "Limbo" is a poem by Barbadian poet Edward Kamau Brathwaite. It turns out that the limbo is not just a popular nightclub dance. bastone colpo suono la nave anch’essa pronta. limbo limbo come me limbo limbo come me. at the end of the poem, Caliban sings that “the music is saving me.”. Edward Brathwaite, also known as Kamau Brathwaite, who has died aged 89, was a Caribbean poet and historian, praised by the American poet Adrienne Rich for … From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia " Limbo " is a poem by Barbadian poet Edward Kamau Brathwaite. But it also bears the influence of Kamau Brathwaite’s more pared-down couplets in “Limbo: Version”. Image from Heritage Images/Getty. stick is the whip and the dark deck is slavery . It was even performed at wakes—rituals in which survivors sit beside the bodies of the dead. Edward Kamau Brathwaite (Black Male Poet) 1. Includes differentiated activities, engaging activities and extensive teacher and student notes. This seems to have been the most popular question on this year’s GCSE paper 2, from my experience. So what happens in the middle passage of Caliban? Those early, ponderous verses sinking into blocks have dissolved and the poem stretches out long, its verse suddenly free and lithe, pulsing with life as it moves “up/up/up” along with Caliban himself. What happens in the poem? The Limbo resources include a 34 slide PowerPoint to help teach one of KS4 / GCSE English’s most widely studied poems. 'Limbo' is a poem by Edward Kamau Brathwaite, a carribean poet in the 1930s about slavery and the boat journey of slaves being transfered from their native countries. • (weapon) Limbo, or Anti Submarine Mortar Mark 10 (A/S Mk • (Brathwaite poem) `Limbo` is a poem by Barbadian poet Edward Kamau Brathwaite • (Huxley) Limbo (1920), Aldous Huxley`s first collection of short fiction • (boutique) Limbo was a boutique which was opened in 1965 by Martin (Marty) Freedman But each time the is stick lowered, fewer people make it under, through, and up. ‘Limbo’ by Edward Kamau Braithwaite 1. These words were penned by Barbados’ most outstanding poet, historian and Culture scholar – Kamau Brathwaite ... the rhythmic structure of his poetry ranges from jazz to calypso, limbo, Rasta drumming, and to the rhythms and intonations of the Spirtual Baptists and the practitioners of the West African derived Orisha and Vodun religions. This is where Caliban breaks into dance, and as he “prance[s],” he begins breaking words down, experimenting with new ways of ordering them, literally creating space for himself with dashes and wide-open margins: And Calypso Lyrics. The lesson looks at historical events that can have links to the poem, the linguistic meaning behind the title, a full annotation of the poem, a question based on how the themes are presented in the poem and a hot seat plenary. The pattern of increasing confinement mimics the often fatal experience of being crowded into the hold of a slave ship and dehumanized inside its “long dark neck.” Here is a schematic image of that crowding so you can see what it was like: A plan of a British slave ship, showing how 454 slaves were placed on board. la lunga notte scura è il silenzio di fronte limbo limbo come me. like to play And Caliban’s steps are slow. There are two narratives running in parallel: the actions of the dance, and ; the history of a people which is being enacted. By suspending the word “limbo’ itself between two lines, Brathwaite captures this sense of suspense and makes it part of the active experience of his poem. Form and Structure. When you listen, you will hear the voice of the Caribbean islands, melodious, playful, its own thing. Limbo is a poem by Edward Kamau Brathwaite.It describes the similarity between a limbo dance and the transportation of African slaves into the West Indies and America. Caliban 1. • It uses the imagery and rhythm of limbo-dancing to describe the experience. It describes the similarity between a limbo dance and the transportation of African slaves into the West Indies and America. down He studied History at Cambridge. While there is the hint of an impending storm (“the sky was cloudy, a strong breeze”), the weather only marks the Caribbean islands’ vulnerability to hurricanes, today thought to be more intense and destructive than in the past, thanks to global warming—a legacy of the European scientific enlightenment, and thus also a legacy of European colonialism. Read all poems of Kamau Brathwaite and infos about Kamau Brathwaite. Come back to me my language: poetry and the West Indies. Echoing Shakespeare,  Brathwaite’s Caliban turns to Ariel’s beautiful song of transformation from death to life (“Full fathom five thy father lies, Of his bones are coral made”). Edward Kamau Brathwaite(born 11 May 1930, Bridgetown, Barbados) is widely considered one of the major voices in the Caribbeanliterary canon. Hello, Sign in. His birth name was Lawson Edward Brathwaite. It is written by Edward Kamau Brathwaite. One theme he often explores is the theme of COLONISATION. Limbo Evaluation Essay 680 Words | 3 Pages. It was suggested to him by the grandmother of the Kenyan novelist and theorist Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, who currently teaches at UC Irvine! Here ‘s a picture of  a street performance of the limbo: The Irwin Clement Caribbean steel band in London, 1963. • The poem is Braithwaite’s reflection on the experience of his ancestors transported from Africa to the Caribbean as slaves. Throughout his work, Brathwaite is keenly aware of the middle passage as part of the tragic history of ‘my people.’  The middle passages of his poems—the parts in the center that move us from the beginning to the end—are always important. Ban 3 Credits Kamau Brathwaite Downloads. Kamau Brathwaite in the Poetry Store. The limbo is thus a dance of elimination, if also of triumph for those who survive. But it is also performed by acrobatic native dancers for the pleasure of American and European visitors whose money holds up the islands’ fragile economies. long dark neck and the silence is over me But Caliban fails to break free of Prospero. The use of a 1st person narrative also helps to reinforce the idea that this is the poet’s culture and allows us to gain a greater understanding of his emotions towards slavery. He gives “My people” a common history and shows them how to use it to move forward. Blessing ... Edward Kamau Brathwaite. As colonization’s high tide has receded and European powers have departed, the island peoples have been left destitute, invisible, erased by history. down But as Caliban dances the limbo, more troubling elements creep in. Edward Kamau Brathwaite: Limbo. This modern Caliban takes Shakespeare’s own imagery and plays with it until it begins to play for him. The last thing we experience in the poem, is Caliban’s “hot/slow/step/on the burning ground.”  He is remembering how to walk again on the shores of a foreign land. “Limbo” by Edward Kamau Braithwaite. afrosonics. Brathwaite's goal is to correctly describe the nature and history of South Africa. part II of Sequence 1 'Libation' from Masks (1968) in The Arrivants: A New World Trilogy (OUP, 1973), Kamau Brathwaite 1968, 1973, used by permission of the author. I borrow this term from Brathwaite’s later volume of poems Middle Passages, where you can find his other Tempest-inspired poem, Letter Sycorax, in which Caliban steals Prospero’s laptop and uses it to reconnect with his mother’s language and “curse [Prospero] wid his own cursor.” The “middle passage” refers to the forced transportation of human beings from Africa to the Caribbean; many went to the North American colonies, and many others died in transit. This lesson explores the culture of the Caribbean and the poem Limbo by Kamau Brathwaite. Limbo by Edward Kamau Brathwaite 3. But just what is the “lim–/bo silence”? Translated by Edward Baker. Brathwaite’s Caliban liberates himself through free “play” and unbridled pleasure, through joyful experiment with what words might do spontaneously. He is, to course, an adaptation of Shakespeare’s Caliban, who likewise longs to break free of the chains Prospero has put on him. By isolating the syllable “lim,” Brathwaite also echoes the word “limb,” evoking the part of a tree that can be turned into a stick. at the Car- For example he repeats the adjectives 'dark deck' on lines 16 and 14 to give feelings of imprisonment. 3. His father was a warehouse clerk. lungo scuro ponte e l’acqua intorno lungo scuro ponte ed il silenzio su di me. Read More . Limbo is sprititually the place in between heaven and hell, a comfortable home. Educated at Harrison College in Barbados, at Cambridge and at Sussex, where he completed a PhD in philosophy, he was the co-founder of the Caribbean Artists’ Movement. Barbadian author original name Lawson Edward Brathwaite, also published as Edward Brathwaite and Edward Kamau Brathwaite born May 11, 1930, Bridgetown, Barbados Barbadian author whose works are noted for their rich and complex… Read all poems of Kamau Brathwaite and infos about Kamau Brathwaite. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968. This gives it a double meaning: the limbo celebrates versatility, flexibility, and originality. Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Returns & Orders. Clips of the poem can be found on YouTube. A professor of Comparative Literatureat New York University,Brathwaite is the 2006 International Winner of the Griffin Poetry Prize, for his volume of poetry Born to Slow Horses. Caliban’s “people,” lifeless and impoverished, must somehow recreate themselves out of these materials. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. Even the spirits of those who die might be imagined to have been released by death into the freedom of an afterlife that this very ritual perpetuates. Brathwaite's reading of this poem can be heard on SoundCloud, via the audio player (above right), or by opening this annotation / Caliban / 1 / Ninety-five per cent of my people Yet Brathwaite’s poems are vibrant with life and hope as they embrace the possibilities of an ever-changing world. Designed for English KS3 students, we explore connotations and denotations and how the language used in Limbo is multi-layered and open to interpretation. long dark deck and the water surrounding me There dancers pass under a horizontal stick suspended between two vertical ones which is lowered after everyone has gone under it. Brathwaite’s journey from a highly conventional English name to a subtle and empowering African one is a journey toward an ancestral identity that holds the possibility of self-determination. Kamau Brathwaite poems, quotations and biography on Kamau Brathwaite poet page. The poem is written in free verse and structured to a drum beat, like a traditional limbo dance as well as representing the drum beat in which the slaves had to work to and beaten to. [1], Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Limbo_(Brathwaite_poem)&oldid=870929310, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Mother, any distance greater than a single span", "I've made out a will; I'm leaving myself", "The Little Boy Lost and The Little Boy Found" by, This page was last edited on 27 November 2018, at 21:27. Album Hunter Caribbean Lit. The chorus ‘limbo, limbo like me’ is repeated throughout the poem representing the constant beatings and oppression which the slaves endured. Limbo byEdward Kamau Brathwaite answers. As the limbo “stick” lowers, dancers reenact that suffocating confinement. District Six. LIMBO-Edward Kamau Brathwaite POEM MATCHES: Contrast: Two Scavengers in a Truck, Vultures, Nothing’s Changed Past/Present Theme: Nothing’s Changed, Island Man, What Were They Like? Island Man by Grace Nichols. ‘Limbo’ by Edward Kamau Braithwaite 1. 1 The stone had skidded arc'd and bloomed into islands: Cuba and San Domingo Jamaica and … Kamau Brathwaite. You may have done the limbo yourself at a skating rink. If he does, it will not only be because he transforms the dark past but because he has learned to traverse its troubling surface. Caliban’s island—apparently Cuba—suffers under the weight of dead modern machines left behind on land that also seems dead, incapable of yielding the vital substances that the living need, such as cotton or bread. In “Caliban,’ Brathwaite puts on the ‘mask’ of Shakespeare’s Caliban so he can speak the truth of a decolonizing subject’s search for identity. Posted on July 12, 2010 by Emma Lee. That is why. He has won many awards for his poetry . Nothing's Changed by Tatamkhulu Afrika. Cali- It was originally developed by African slaves who had survived the middle passage. This poem creates a sense of the movement of the limbo dance (an African traditional dance where the dancers move under a horizontal pole, attempting to move under it without their hands or knees touching the ground). Carolina Benavente Morales2 | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Kamau Brathwaite, original name Lawson Edward Brathwaite, also published as Edward Brathwaite and Edward Kamau Brathwaite, (born May 11, 1930, Bridgetown, Barbados—died February 4, 2020, Barbados), Barbadian author whose works are noted for their rich and complex examination of the African and indigenous roots of Caribbean culture. Kamau Brathwaite, image from New Directions Books, Someone called Edward Brathwaite makes a brief appearance in Roberto Fernández Retamar’s famous 1974 essay “Caliban: Notes toward a Discussion of Culture in Our America.”  Like Caliban in Aimé Césaire’s play A Tempest, Edward Brathwaite later changed his name. Barbadian author original name Lawson Edward Brathwaite, also published as Edward Brathwaite and Edward Kamau Brathwaite born May 11, 1930, Bridgetown, Barbados Barbadian author whose works are noted for their rich and complex… Print. • It uses the imagery and rhythm of limbo-dancing to describe the experience. Of course, not every dancer manages this; those who do not are eliminated, while those who succeed get more and more creative, often showing off their talent for contortion and fluid movement. down, Here the playful, lifting cadences of island music displace the heavy, meter of the first part of the poem. The Limbo resources include a 34 slide PowerPoint to help teach one of KS4 / GCSE English’s most widely studied poems. The way forward is painful and difficult. Appropriating Prospero’s stick into a new dance allows Caliban to appropriate its power for his own purposes of freedom and self-creation. Retamar, Roberto Fernández. Going down and under the limbo stick is likened to the slaves' going down into the hold of the ship, which carries them into slavery. limbo limbo come me . This internationally popular game originated in the Caribbean islands. A Tempest. As he dances, the verse form of the poem mirrors the alternation between flattening and lengthening that is part of the dance. nival; Kamau Brathwaite in the Poetry Store. Caliban’s modern island has become a world of dead ends: “out of the living stone out of the living bone/of coral, these dead/towers.” Caliban remembers political revolutions that should have brought freedom but resulted only in more oppression in the form of police abuse and even addiction to the toys of capitalism. This image was published by the Plymouth Chapter of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade and is now held by the United States Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs division. By calling his collection of poems Masks, Brathwaite tells us that he is interested in ways to tap into one’s deepest identity while also playing with alternative identities. bo silence Brathwaite himself coined the phrase “tidalectics” to describe linguistic patterns in which different idioms, sounds, voices, rhythms, and moods flow, unite, disperse, and then reunite in new configurations. Mai 1930 als Lawson Edward Brathwaite in Bridgetown, Barbados; † 4. The key is what we might call the “middle passage” of Brathwaite’s poem—the part between its beginning and its end. 4. The middle of the poem—again, the part that connects but also separates the bleak, heavy scene at the beginning from the energy of hope at the end—consists entirely of such play, thus showing how creative language can be a passport to freedom, allowing Caliban to create himself as he wishes. PDF | On Dec 1, 2007, Carolina Benavente Morales published Ineke Phaf-Rheinberger (ed.) She is also the author of The English Fable: Aesop and Literary Culture, 1650-1740 (Cambridge, 1995), Mary Queen of Scots: Romance and Nation (Routledge, 2000), and The Trial of Mary Queen of Scots: A Documentary History (Bedford, 2000). Edward Brathwaite, also known as Kamau Brathwaite, who has died aged 89, was a Caribbean poet and historian, praised by the American poet Adrienne Rich for … Born in Barbados, Caribbean poet and scholar Edward Kamau Brathwaite was educated at Harrison College in Barbados and Pembroke College, Cambridge University. [1] A professor of Comparative Literature at New York University, [1] Brathwaite is the 2006 International Winner of the Griffin Poetry Prize, for his volume of poetry Born to Slow Horses. It describes the similarity between a limbo dance and the transportation of African slaves into the West Indies and America. This is a poem that celebrates the sound of the human voice. By isolating the syllable “lim,” Brathwaite also echoes the word “limb,” evoking the part of a tree that can be turned into a stick. Shielded by a mask, we are sometimes emboldened to speak the truth. 3 Credits Kamau Brathwaite Downloads. [1] References ^ Chamberlin, J. Edward (1993). Brathwaite's reading of this poem can be heard on SoundCloud, via the audio player (above right), or by opening this annotation. Caliban imports all of these aspects of the limbo dance in his poem: “down/down/down”; “knees spread wide.” And the “limbo stick” itself appears many times in the poem, as if to transform Prospero’s magic stick—an instrument of domination—into a toy for Caliban to play and dance with. But who exactly was Kamau Brathwaite? And yet Braithwaite’s poem does not end in this world of death. The first is titled "Bermudas." It is ambitious and complex. The opening stanza is brief, demonstrating the abbreviated grammar typical … The limbo itself is a dance involving a stick. limbo (Brathwaite 37) 29 The italics used for "limbo" and "limbo like me" throughout the poem could also refer to the chorus of the song chanted by the watchers, while the limbo dancer sings the other lines. But just how does Caliban find his way from death to life, from stasis to movement, from despair to hope? Edward Kamau Brathwaite Ed il bastone del limbo è il silenzio di fronte limbo. (The African name of Kamau … What is the poem about? Without escaping from Prospero’s language, Shakespeare’s Caliban plays with it, rearranging its syllables to suggest new meanings, “new” possibilities of identity and power, and even “freedom.”. Nothing's Changed Small round hard stones click under my heels, seeding grasses thrust bearded seeds into trouser cuffs, cans, trodden on, crunch in tall, purple-flowering, amiable weeds. In its negative side, it recreates the condition of death. Brathwaite is relating the history of South Africa, of the continent itself and the people who have lived there. About Kamau Brathwaite. Limbo in Catholic theology is the suspended state between heaven and hell. Facts about Edward Kamau Brathwaite 8: the birthplace The birthplace of Brathwaite was located in Bridgetown, Barbados. It is an assumed identity, one that often frees the person behind the mask to access and express buried parts of his or her own identity. The free tracks you can enjoy in the Poetry Archive are a selection of a poet’s work. It describes the similarity between a limbo dance and the transportation of African slaves into the West Indies and America. Get creative with 'Limbo' Engaging questions and activities based on the Brathwaite poem. Edward Kamau Brathwaite wrote Limbo to describe the pain the West African slaves went through on the ships. Free verse - does not rhyme; Strong rhythm (song) Repetition; Extended metaphor - the limbo dance ; Presentational devices - italics, single words etc; What it means. What is the poem about? The title ‘Limbo’ is an African dance and the poem could be about slaves being captured and taken on a ship to a new land. . I particularly liked the link to Brathwaite himself reading the poem and speaking about the symbolic resonance of the limbo. Ban Currently, he is Professor of Comparative Literature at New York … We hear “drummers” and feel the action of “dumb gods” who can still speak through the body. sing up to the lim- The problem seems to be that many teachers are obsessed by the notion that ‘structure’ = the poem’s layout looks like something. The limbo stick is in He has won many awards for his poetry . The limbo itself is a dance involving a stick. “limbo like me”: A Reading of Kamau Brathwaite’s “Caliban”, to listen to this recording of Brathwaite reading the poem, United States Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs division, Air’s Appearance: Literary Atmosphere in British Fiction, 1660-1794, The English Fable: Aesop and Literary Culture, 1650-1740, The Trial of Mary Queen of Scots: A Documentary History. limbo like me dom drown Edward Kamau Brathwaite is widely considered one of the major voices in the Caribbean literary canon. More significant still: where did the limbo come from? 4. But, it’s been problematic. In 1983 was appointed Professor of Social and Cultural History at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. You may have done the limbo yourself at a skating rink. The best way to appreciate that is to listen to this recording of Brathwaite reading the poem. The title ‘Limbo’ is an African dance and the poem could be about slaves being captured and taken on a ship to a new land. Februar 2020 auf Barbados) war ein englischsprachiger Dichter, Schriftsteller und Mitbegründer des Caribbean Artists Movement (CAM). New York: TCG Translations, 2002. I didn’t actually know that it had a longer history in relationship to the trans-Atlantic slave trade. So as to make the plight of  “my people” universal, Brathwaite’s Caliban next invokes the prophet Jeremiah, the biblical book of Leviticus (which is preoccupied with laws that separate the living from the dead, the pure from the corrupt), and the modern existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Brathwaite, Edward. Cluster 1: Limbo by Edward Kamau Brathwaite Theme . Within this poem Edward Kamau Brathwaite uses repetition a lot. 4 READING POETRY Page 33 The ending of the poem is undoubtedly optimistic. Print. 2. But whereas Césaire’s Caliban demands that Prospero “call me X” (20), Brathwaite chose the name Kamau. He studied History at Cambridge. Brathwaite's Caliban is split into three sections: I: Caribbean as a place where people are cut off (alienated from their environment) II: (period of transition) Importance of cultural elements to make sense of trauma of past III: (climax) (reemergence of limbo as tourist attraction and) Reintegration of … What is a mask? The free tracks you can enjoy in the Poetry Archive are a selection of a poet’s work. That doesn’t mean that Brathwaite’s Caliban leaves Shakespeare’s Caliban behind. There is a strong sense of position throughout the poem. Come back to me my language: poetry and the West Indies. pan Like many other Caribbean islands, Barbados has long had a large, poor population of African descent; its own name means ‘bearded ones’ in Spanish and might refer to the hanging roots of trees or to the beards worn by the indigenous people encountered by the Spanish when they arrived in the fifteenth century. bastone colpo suono ed il buio ancora immobile. But in order to revitalize that imagery, he infuses it with the tempos and cadences of Caribbean speech, dance, and and music. Includes differentiated activities, engaging activities and extensive teacher and student notes. 'Limbo' is a poem by Edward Kamau Brathwaite, a carribean poet in the 1930s about slavery and the boat journey of slaves being transfered from their native countries. It would be very nice if this were all that is going on in the middle passage. He is a West Indian poet/writer. Limbo (Edward Kamau Brathwaite) is an excellent resource for teaching the AQA Anthology poem Limbo by Edmund Kamu Brathwaite. But this is also an image of hell. That isn’t true of Brathwaite’s Caliban: he has broken the spell! Masks. The Honourable Edward Kamau Brathwaite, CHB (/ k ə ˈ m aʊ ˈ b r æ θ w eɪ t /; 11 May 1930 – 4 February 2020) was a Barbadian poet and academic, widely considered one of the major voices in the Caribbean literary canon. Edward Kamau Brathwaite (* 11. When they manage to come out of it, they celebrate the triumph of release. Thank you for sharing! Limbo byEdward Kamau Brathwaite answers. Try Kamau Brathwaite, from “Red Rising”, Sun Poem. Born in 1930 into what was known in those days as a“coloured middle-class-oriented family”, and was christened “Edward Brathwaite” by his parents, Edward and Beryl Brathwaite. He attended Harrison College in Bridgetown in 1945 for his secondary education. • The poem is Braithwaite’s reflection on the experience of his ancestors transported from Africa to the Caribbean as slaves. Follow. Perfect GCSE English Literature preparation for KS3 English … The poems themselves have been published in books whose titles— The Arrivants, Middle Passages, and Masks—retrace Afro-Caribbean histories of slavery and dislocation. She has previously contributed to the HC Research Blog on the topic of Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko. Who was Kamau. He earned his PhD in philosophy from the University of Sussex. The middle part of his poem is an extended riff on Caliban’s euphoric “‘Ban, Ban, Caliban; have a new master, get a new man.” This is the song Shakespeare’s Caliban sings when he believes he has found a way to break free of Prospero’s tyranny. This internationally popular game originated in the Caribbean islands. COLONISATION-is when a powerful country invades another country … KS3 English poetry lesson exploring Limbo by Edward Kamau Brathwaite. But when Caliban echoes Ariel’s song, life becomes death. Designed for English KS3 students, we explore connotations and denotations and how the language used in Limbo is multi-layered and open to interpretation. But the message is a mixed one. #lit #quotes #words #poetry #Kamau Brathwaite #Red Rising #Sun Poem #noli me tangere #caribbean lit #jamaican lit #m. 39 notes. Limbo (Edward Kamau Brathwaite) is an excellent resource for teaching the AQA Anthology poem Limbo by Edmund Kamu Brathwaite. Is it just because he has access to other traditions and realities that belong to him and his people, not the colonial powers that have killed and erased “ninety-five percent of” them? He earned his PhD in philosophy from the University of Sussex. Kamau Brathwaite, original name Lawson Edward Brathwaite, also published as Edward Brathwaite and Edward Kamau Brathwaite, (born May 11, 1930, Bridgetown, Barbados—died February 4, 2020, Barbados), Barbadian author whose works are noted for their rich and complex examination of the African and indigenous roots of Caribbean culture. After all their suffering when they were beaten by the ‘whip’ and the ‘stick’, the slaves at last reach salvation. Jayne Lewis is a professor of English at UC Irvine, a faculty lecturer in the current cycle of Humanities Core, and the director of the Humanities Honors Program at UCI. But how? This is a dance for tourist consumption and as such it suggests continuing dependence on American and European money.
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